@article{  
   author = {Kao, Athit, Randall, Arlo, Yang, Yingying, Patel, Vishal R., Kandur, Wynne, Guan, Shenheng, Rychnovsky, Scott D., Baldi, Pierre, Huang, Lan},
   title = {Mapping the structural topology of the yeast 19S proteasomal regulatory particle using chemical cross-linking and probabilistic modeling.},
   journal = {Molecular & Cellular Proteomics},
   volume = {},
   number = {},
   pages = {},
   note = {Mol Cell Proteomics},
   abstract = {Structural characterization of proteasome complexes is an essential step toward understanding the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Currently, high resolution structures are not available for the 26S proteasome holocomplex as well as its subcomplex, the 19S regulatory particle (RP). Here we have employed a novel integrated strategy combining chemical cross-linking with multistage tandem mass spectrometry to define the proximity of subunits within the yeast 19S RP in order to elucidate its topology. This has resulted in the identification of 174 cross-linked peptides of the yeast 19S RP, representing 43 unique lysine-lysine linkages within 24 non-redundant pair-wise subunit interactions. To map the spatial organization of the 19S RP, we have developed and utilized a rigorous probabilistic framework to derive maximum likelihood (ML) topologies based on cross-linked peptides determined from our cross-linking analysis. Probabilistic modeling of the yeast 19S hexameric AAA-ATPase ring (i.e. Rpt1-6) has produced an ML topology which is in excellent agreement with known topologies of its orthologs. In addition, similar analysis was carried out on the 19S lid subcomplex, whose predicted ML topology corroborates recently reported cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies. Together, we have demonstrated the effectiveness and potential of probabilistic modeling for unraveling topologies of protein complexes using cross-linking data. This report describes the first study of the 19S RP topology using a new integrated strategy combining chemical cross-linking, mass spectrometry and probabilistic modeling. Our results have provided a solid foundation to advance our understanding of the 19S RP architecture at peptide-level resolution. Furthermore, our methodology developed here is a valuable proteomic tool that can be generalized for elucidating the structures of protein complexes.},
   keywords = {BioinformaticsMathematical ModelingMS-cleavable cross-linkerProbabilistic analysisProteasome complexesProtein Cross-linking*Protein Machines*Protein structure*Protein-Protein Interactions*Topology of protein complexes},
   year = {2012}
}